Comment harmoniser les mélodies et les thèmes de sa chanson.

Comment harmoniser les mélodies et les thèmes de sa chanson.


Hi everybody ! and welcome to this third stage of our section dedicated to song writing. Today you will learn to harmonize your themes,
those we created in the first tutorial, ie the verse themes, the chorus and the bridge,
and on which in the 2nd tutorial you have kalready adapted a text. so harmonizing what is it? It’s simply finding a chord grid that is a sequence of chords, a chord progression that will highlight your themes and give them the color you want. firstly we will talk about generalities, that is to say we will explain you give advice on the harmonization of a theme and in a second step, so we will show you how we harmonized so the song ” T étais là” that we take for example so through the three themes ie
the verse, the bridge and the chorus. we go right now! So once your melodies and your texts have
been designed, the next step of creation is to harmonize the themes, ie to add to them
chords that will highlight them. then depending on the type of chord and their sequence obviously the progression of chords, the themes will take a particular color, ie a particular
style that you want to give to your song. for example if we use perfect chords like
this … then we will have a song with a bit basic character a little traditional song, as we actually heard a few years ago. So on the contrary, if we can add for example
ninths to this song will change a little bit the color make it evolve a little bit for
example … Here is the ninth addition here to give to my song, so to my harmony a color a little bit richer and if I can push a little further by doing for example something like that … then I give a color a little more jazzy my song so it’s obvious. here we have much richer harmonies, with 9th, 11th, augmented 11th on the last chord, we saw
it on the G7 chord for example. all that to say that finally, the color that you will give the chords and and their richness, obviously influences the style in which you want to
write your song. There is also another important parameter
is the sequence of chords that can refer to a time when a specific style. for example
if we want to play quite tonal, we will chain chords like for example II-V-I which proceed by perfect ascending fourths or perfect descending fifths, which are progressions so called tonal
music, so the so-called tonal song, a classic song which will dominate here. Conversely, it is also possible to create slightly more modal chord progressions, which do not proceed this time by ascending perfect fourths, or descending perfect fifths, and for example by descending seconds, for example major seconds, very modal …. here we have a color a little
more modal. by thirds also, often ascending thirds like
that … here is a color so very modal. so the modal
color that you breathe in your composition is not only the richness of its chords, but
it is also the sequence of bass chords, so who progress in what way? The harmonic colors chosen by the composer or the arranger therefore, will reflects not
only its musical culture but also the instrument that he practices. whether it’s a guitarist or a pianist who arranges and harmonizes his melody, the result will be completely different
this is obviously due to the tuning of his instrument, but also the position of these chords obviously. The chords for a pianist and a guitarist are not voiced the same way. so now we are going to give some tips that govern the harmonization of a melody and that can be at several levels. first the harmonic frequency. what’s this
? it is simply the number of chords that one places by bar, and which of course depends on the melody. it is the theme that really decides what kind
of harmony, because a theme in itself has everything. it includes rhythm, harmony etc. so for example I can do a 1 bar harmonic frequency. If it’s a four-beat measure for
example, so a whole note, we’ll have… here is here I have an harmonic frequency corresponding to a whole note, to 1 bar, that is to say 1 chord per bar, or 4 beats. There is also another parameter to consider, it is the motion between the melody and the bass. for example if the melody goes
up at that moment I could have for example a bass that goes down. at that moment I would have a contrary movement then we will have… Then there actually the melody
goes up at first, the bass goes down by opposite direction. and when the melody came back the
bass followed by contrary motion . we could also have a parallel movement for example … here is a parallel movement between
the melody and the bass. then also there is another form in the harmony, one will speak therefore of counter melody, that is to say, when we have a theme, the higher voice of the chords can also form an interesting melodic line, that we will call therefore counter-melody. it will be a counterpoint to the main theme. for example here I make an accompaniment without the melody and we will see that the upper voice of my right hand will still have a melodic shape, although it is therefore sequences of chords … on the right hand had a melody that will therefore appear as a counterpoint below the main theme which will be above. we will also talk about chords and chord positions. Here I refer you to our section
on chords, that you should re-view to understand this concept, ie chords and bass of chords in
particular are not necessarily the roots of the chords. We can also use chord inversions that will actually give a little different color to the chord, even on the perfect triad. for example … here I used for the first chords in any case, chord inversions that allow a better voice leading. in fact, when we conduct the voices better, the chords, obviously the harmony sound better, since it is the goal of the harmony actually to lead each note of each chord to the notes of the following chord. There is another concept also that the notes
of your chord must not conflict with that of the melody obviously. for example if we
have a perfect fifth on C, ie the G in the theme, we will not play an augmented fifth obviously the G sharp in the chord, since here we will have a conflict between the G sharp and the G natural in the theme. So we avoid these dissonances, that is to say, the notes of your chord must be in harmony with the notes of your melody. then we saw that actually, we could compose themes and harmonize them tonally for example in major or minor. I could be in minor now, and do this … here in C minor for example,
or in major as I showed you so earlier in all the examples that was also in major.
there is also in the theme, and therefore in the harmonization, modulating passages,
that is to say that we are obviously not obliged to remain in the same key or in the same
mode. so we will be able to modulate during a theme, or during a song for example, between
the verse and the chorus. then I will give an example of modulation
here with C major, and we will go in A minor… that’s it and we stop on a dominant chord of A moinor key : E7. So we’ll see now how have been harmonized so the three themes of our song “Tu étais là” by Stephane Ellia, That we took as an example
so throughout these tutorials on song creation. Then I remind you that the grid will be written in letters and that it is necessary to learn : A=La, B=Si, C=Do, D=D, E=Mi,
F=Fa and G=Sol. We will also have when we have a chord on
a bass, it will be a chord symbol separated by a slash so on a low note, ie a single note.we can also sometimes chord on chord, that is to say at that moment, the slash becomes horizontal. then the term maj. therefore will mean major, min.=minor, 7=that is to say when
we will have a number just after the letter, it will be a dominant chord, the barred round will mean a half diminished 7th chord, the round thus a diminished chord, and sus4,
a substitution of the third by the fourth, a suspension chord. I advise you to review
all our tutorials about chords. so here are the harmonic grids that correspond
to the three themes written in this song, so the theme of the verse is first of all
we start with a D major chord and we get .. here twice the same sentence since it was a theme with two separate phrases in two members of sentence. so now here is the theme of the bridge that begins with F major and that will bend towards
La, we had seen … and finally the harmonies of the theme of
the chorus so that goes to D, actually which also begins with a D major … so if we then analyze these harmonic grids that harmonize these three themes, we will
notice that the general harmonic frequency, I say general because it can vary, is of 1 chord per bar. So we see it in the first theme, with D major
7, A minor, G major and D minor. there is really 1 chord by bar, and we will say that the harmonic frequency corresponds to the whole note, that is to say, since we have four beats here. Then we will see that the motion between
the bass and the melody is quite variable. for example, it is rather contrary in the
verse. We play now the example with the theme, it will do… in the bridge, these motions
between bass and melody mix parallel, opposite, and even oblique motions, for example : and finally in the chorus we will have a mixture of contrary and parallel motions also. The other remark is therefore about the harmonic grid, ie the bass progressions
of these chords. then in general one proceeds by progressions of fourths in the verse, or fifths for example, between D … and A minor. so here we actually have an ascending 5th or a descending 4th. then major second from La to G major, ground and then D major again here a descending fourth from G to D. Then, as we said in our first tutorial, on the composition of the themes, we actually saw that this song was rather composed in
modal, since it was determined that it was for the verse of a D Mixolydien.
Then in the theme of the bridge this time, we will realize that it is mostly seconds
actually take precedence. bass progressions with intervals of seconds, and that is very
modal. moreover for example F major… and G major… and A major… and we chained … Finally the theme of this chorus, it is rather made of intervals of seconds and thirds…. This is what gives it a slightly
modal color, for example D major 9… then we go down by a major third on B flat, then C major ascending second, and we return by a major second on D major. modal so if we link the two sentences, we have this result a little bit modal … here is a harmonic grid of the basses which proceed by very variable motions, in modal music.
particular movements which refer to a more So we have actually seen the D mode is very used and sometimes have some reminiscences of blues. We see it especially in the theme of the verse in particular a D blues between the F sharp and the C natural. we have already seen it in the tutorial about composition of the themes. then we’ll see the chord progressions themselves, this time then in the verse we have D major first degree … then 5th degree A minor but, because the dominant of D maj would be A-C#-E, but here we have a minor, which gives it also
this modal color. then a fourth degree G major … and a first degree here, D major again … so we can see the modal color here first we go down from C to A third descendant, then to the 4th So the G, and especially the final cadence from G to D. it is IV – I. This is called the plagal cadence that really refers to the modal music. so in the bridge this time we have f major
… so that would be a sixth degree actually since this theme of the bridge is bent towards the key of A, the A mode. so we will have sixth degree … then seventh degree G major… but it is G natural and not G#, so that which actually lead us to the modality, since from G natural that will go to A… And in the chorus so, that returns to D, we will have a first degree D major, and then a sixth degree Bb maj. But B flat, which gives this modal color, Then that goes back to C major by an ascending major second , a modal mood also, and from C we return to D and
we see that it is not a C-sharp like in tonal music, which would be the leading tone in D major.
but here it is a do natural, which gives a cadence : VII-I and
more exactly bVII-I since it is about a C natural… We can say that this song uses a kind of blur harmony that is to say, sometimes tonal, sometimes modal, sometimes blues. and this gives this style
of songs of which a rather melancholic character. So here I hope that this tutorial will help
you now to harmonize your own themes, harmony is therefore very important, since it will be the color you want to give to your final product. then as we have just seen the harmony therefore gives a color to your themes. it completely transforms them by dressing them. So then in the first tutorial we had seen the composition of the themes, in the second, the adaptation of the text, and this third tutorial, we saw how to harmonize your melodies. then the next step, and I give you an appointment do not miss it, will be dedicated to arranging. What is it? well, it’s a transition from a
simple composition to the guitar or the piano, to the color, that is, to
the orchestra. what instruments to use, how to use them, drums, basses, choirs, and I’ll meet you at the next tutorial. Thanks for your presence. if you like our tutorials, thank you for leaving us a Like, share and comment. you will be able to subscribe to the Musiclassroom channel to not miss any novelty, or to watch the playlist of all the videos concerning this same topic, as for me thank you for your listening and see you soon!

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